Uvolution -The Evolution of the Universe

                                                By Richard Quist  
                                                copyright @ 2020


The following is an explanation of the initial development of the early Universe, including the phenomenon known as
“inflation”, based upon the concept of the contraction of space and the velocity of light with the passage of time.

The mathematical description of ex-con concepts is based upon one fundamental relationship; the ratio between two
lengths, overall length of the radius of the Universe relative to Planck’s length.  Overall length represents the radius of
the observable Universe, real or theoretical, which remains constant or expands, while Planck’s length in this Universe
always contracts with time relative to the overall size of the Universe and relative to itself.  This contraction of Planck’s
length is the fundamental action of the physical Universe.  It creates the velocity between stationary matter and photons
and also determines the rate that time passes for the Universe and the amount of time that has passed since the
beginning of the Universe.

In its most simple form contraction can be considered to have two fundamental directions, with one direction defining
photon position and motion in space time and the other defining the motionless center of a particular non-dilated
reference frame.  For a motionless observer composed of matter, it can be said that it and space-time contracts in size
toward its own gravitational center, this being one of those fundamental directions of contraction.  The other
fundamental direction applies to photons. The path of free photons moving away from that observer can be said to be
caused by a contraction of the space in between toward the periphery of the observable Universe in the direction of
motion. The rate of contraction per unit of space and the amount of space determine the rate of velocity between
stationary mass and propagated photons, and this is always c, though this “c”, as opposed to the conventionally
understanding of (c), contracts in size with time. *(1)


With the fundamental relationship of the ratio between overall length of the radius of the Universe relative to Planck’s
length and the two fundamental directions of contraction it is possible to develop a basic mathematical description of the
creation and expansion of the Universe using the contraction approach.  We begin with nothing, meaning no space of
any kind, at T’’=0, where T’’ equals the number of Planck time units (ptu) that have passed since the beginning of
Creation, a Creation that begins as a pre-Universe and lasts from T’’ = 0 to T’’ = 2(ptu). Let’s say that this Creation
begins as two sphere balls, one ball’s radius representing a maximum possible size for a length of space within what will
be the observable Universe while the other representing the minimum size, Planck’s length (PL), each of these balls with
the same center point, and with radii that initially expand at the same rate from 0 to PL/(Tf) in 1/(Tf) ptu, where Tf equals
approximately 1.6 x10^60 ptu, the number of ptu that have passed since beginning of the Universe as measured today.
Since here they are equal in size there can be no space in a Universe or pre-Universe under these conditions.

From this point the radii of the balls representing maximum and minimum size expand at different rates so that after [1-
(1/1x10^60)] ptu, at T’’=1 ptu, maximum radius size reaches approximately the 1.6x10^10m, while the minimum radius
size expands to today’s Planck length.  The differences between the sizes of the radii create a volume of the space
between the surface of the ball representing maximum size and the outside surface of the ball representing minimum
size. This is not the space of this Universe but instead a semi-void pre-Universe.

The radius of the sphere ball representing the maximum radius of the pre-Universe, this at T’=0, with T’= T’’-1, collapses
from its maximum size of approximately 1.6 x10^10m to an overall size of approximately 1.6x10^-5m.  Over the same
period the radius of ball representing the minimum size, this radius equal to Planck’s length, expands from approximately
1.61x10^-35m to 1.6 x10^-5m, this producing a collision between the expanding Planck length and the contracting overall
size of the Universe at T=0, where T=T’’-2, and also T=T’-1, this the age of the Universe in Planck time units.

So we now have:

c=C'/T+1,
where c equals the speed of light after (T) Planck time units have passed since the beginning of time in this Universe, C'
equals the speed of light at T =0, equal to approximately 1.6x10^-5m/(ptu), and T equals the number of Planck time units
that have passed since the beginning of the Universe. T=0 is also the point in time when the speed of light begins to
contract.  As time passes from the point Planck’s length contracts at a rate of -C/T’^2 per (ptu)^2.

This collision creates the space of our Universe as a single contracting non-dilated normal time reference frame with
corresponding dilated relative frames, with positions furthest from the center possessing the greatest density of the
Primordial substance. We can say at this point the Universe seems like a sphere ball with the most dense volumes of
space near the surface of the ball.  For this size and this stage of the development of the Universe, before inflation,
relative motion based upon Hubble's law of expansion and the Lorentz-Einstein transformations can be used to describe
a density distribution for this Primordial substance, with the furthest points in the Universe appearing to move the fastest
from the initial center point, this producing a greater relative time dilation, thus amplified measured relative density for
the Primordial substance that is located near the periphery of the Universe, as measured from the single normal time
frame centered at the center of the ball.   Each point in space then defines a particular time dilation. *(2)

For this newly created Universe the overall actual size of the radius of the sphere ball representing the Universe begins
as a constant [C'(1ptu)], or 1.6x10^-5m.  However, overall size can expand through an overall time contraction (time
acceleration, which is now the term I’ll use), (A), where (A) is the time acceleration factor.  Thus, the relative overall size
of the Universe, relative to the it’s initial size of (C'x1ptu), will equal (A)(change in time)(C'(1ptu) after a time acceleration
of (A), where change in time equals approximately T^2, and rate equals C' per ptu..

As the sphere ball actually expands, or just appears to expand because of the contraction of Planck’s constant, new
contraction points are created at an appropriate rate to maintain proper Primordial substance density.

As stated earlier, at the initial point in time in this Universe the density of the Primordial substance in the Universe is
determined by Hubble's law and the Lorentz transformations, so that the further it is from the center of the single initial
non-dilated frame that exists in the Universe at this time the greater the velocity relative to that center, and thus the
greater the measured density of the Primordial substance there relative to that at the zero velocity center, by a factor of
u, where u is the time dilation factor produced by the velocity. I hypothesis that this amplification caused by relative
velocity at the periphery of the Universe is the source of apparent dark matter.  When an overall time acceleration
occurs for the Universe under these conditions, caused by what is today known as dark energy, this distribution flattens
to a relatively uniform measured distribution of the mass-energy into which the Primordial substance evolves.  

From observation we know that after approximately 1.5x10^-36 sec (this equivalent to about Tf^1/8 ptu, where Tf =
approximately 1 x10^60 ptu, the number of ptu that have passed since beginning of the Universe as measured today)
had passed since the beginning of Universal inflation.  For purposes of this model we can first say that inflation
continues until approximately 5x10^-29 sec, (this equivalent to about Tf^1/4 ptu) having passed since the beginning of
the Universe.  According to ex-con physics this inflation is actually caused by a time acceleration during this period.

The combination of contraction and expansion associated with time acceleration can be described in terms of basic
exponential and logarithmic functions.  Expansions and contractions can be described as summations of natural sub
expansions and contractions described by Tf^1/2, Tf^1/4, Tf^1/8, Tf^1/16, etc…, where Tf = approximately 1x10^60 ptu,
approximately the apparent age of the Universe today in terms of Planck time units.  These can be used to describe
eigen lengths and eigen times in the evolution of the Universe.

In terms of ex-con physics we can say that after the initial Tf^1/8 ptu of the Universe, equal to approximately 1.5x10^-36
sec, the rate of time passage is accelerated by a factor of (Tf^1/8) over a period of (Tf^1/8) ptu, this giving a total
acceleration factor of (Tf^1/4) during this period of inflation.  According to the normal non-accelerated time frame a total
of (Tf^¼) ptu, or approximately 5x10^-29 sec, will have passed since the birth of the Universe, while the perceived
amount of time that would have passed for the observer in the accelerated frame will be equal to about (Tf^1/8)(Tf^1/8)
(Tf^1/4)ptu, this equal to  (Tf^1/2)ptu, or about (5x10^-14) sec.

Since overall size is expanded by time acceleration the actual overall size of the Universe after this time acceleration will
be equal to (Tf^¼)(1.6x10^-5)m, or about 1.6x10^10 m, equal to the maximum size of the pre-Universe mentioned
earlier.  From what was explained previously it is also clear that the actual size of Planck’s length from both the normal
time perspective and the accelerated time perspective will be equal to approximately 1.6x10^-20 m at this point in time,
since from both perspectives Planck’s length will have contracted by the same amount, by a factor of 1/(1x10^15),
relative to its original actual size of 1.6x10^-5m.  However, Planck length is always perceived to be equal to                 
(1.61x10^-35 )m as measured from the perspective of an observer in any time reference frame, since while it’s absolute
size contracts, it’s relative size, relative to a Universe that appears to expand in every direction at the speed of light, is
always perceived to be a constant 1.61x 10^-35m.  Observers don’t recognize the contraction of Planck’s length
because they are also contracting. Consequently the perceived overall size of the observable Universe at this time for
the accelerated observer will be equal to his perceived age of the Universe, about (1x10^30) ptu, times (Planck length
1.6x 10^-35m), this total equal to about 1.6x10^-5m.   From the perspective of an observer in the normal time frame,
overall size of the observable Universe at approximately 5 x10^-29 sec should be, under non-accelerated conditions,
equal to (Tf^1/4 x Planck length), or about 1.6x10^-20 m.  However, if both perceive the same sized Universe, the
expanded one, the observer in the accelerated frame would see this expanded size as expected, since the appropriate
number of Planck time units will have passed in order to have produced such a size, while from the perspective of an
observer in the normal time frame the Universe would seem to be much too large considering the amount of time that
had passed at the expected rate of expansion of (cf).  For that observer this then would necessitate an alternative
explanation such as a radical “inflation” of space in order to explain this anomaly.  I propose that today we are in this
situation, not recognizing that the rate at which time passes in the Universe can accelerate and slow, so that getting an
actual age based upon a constant rate for the passage of time and a proper understanding of spatial expansion
requires a proper understanding of the varying rates for the passage of time that can occur.  This is one of the essential
consequences of the time acceleration concept made possible by Ex-Con physics.

The observable Universe reaches the end of the rapidly inflating period at an actual radius of approximately 1.6
x10^10m but an apparent radius of 1.6x10^-5m (because of the actual size of Planck’s length at this time is on the order
of 1.6 x 10^-20 m) as described previously.  The realms that have developed during this rapidly inflating time
acceleration period are dominated by quantum principles and are explained in greater detail in the next section.  From
this point forward the Universe now has the size to accommodate the macro “realm of action”, where gravity and dark
matter (amplified gravity) assert their dominance.

The rapidly expanding period for the overall size of the Universe comes to a relatively quick slowing because of the
structure of space-time.  It is quantized, layered and linked.  As explained previously, expansion is generated at a
particular time and size for Planck length because the expansion had begun when “layers” of quanta sized space time
are released and unravel as overall size extends beyond the range of the binding force (dark matter) that kept it
layered, this at approximately (Tf^1/8) ptu, at a size on the order of 5 x10^-28m.  It also diminishes, then stops, at
particular times and sizes.  At the end of this period the linking nature of space-time and gravity grinds expansion to a
halt, this occurring over a particular period of time.  Also, there are other layers to quantized space that are held in
place, or stacked by other levels of binding forces (quantized levels) that have limited range, and once these ranges are
exceeded localized areas within the Universe will begin to appear to expand.

Essential to understanding the effects of expansions and contractions on space is remembering that according to Ex-
Con physics, accelerated contraction rates of space can make it appear that the Universe, or a section of space within
the Universe, is expanding at an accelerated rate when it is actually not.  It’s an appearance of expansion due to the
increased rate of the spatial production of space that was caused by internal contraction, in the context of an expanded
Universe.  With the accelerated frame there is an increased rate of internal contraction relative to what would be the
normal rate for that point in time.  This eventually ceases when time acceleration ceases, but this takes time to affect all
areas of space-time. The frame’s increased contraction rate gradually diminishes and ceases, this, again, because of
the linked nature of space.

Recall that earlier I had explained inflation as an expansion of space that occurs when the range of a binding force is
exceeded so that sections of space of length equal to the Planck length times (Tf^1/8) expands, one after another, until
the final length of that length expands, this occurring  when the range of the binding force is reduced to that length, and
here the expansion stops, remembering that the range of the binding force shrinks as the Planck length shrinks with
time.  Basically a stretch of layered  space reaches its end.  This is like a stretch of folded up string being unraveled
until it is straight. Once it is completely unfolded a force is exerted on the straight string.  This is what happens to space
when it is un-layered.  The force exerted then reduces the rate of contraction of space.  Consequently after the end of
the inflationary period, though overall size is not expanding, internal size is still contracting and in the accelerated frame
at an accelerated, though not accelerating rate, than what would be normal for frames at that point in time.  This is
because as I have explained, when there is a time acceleration the rate of contraction for the Planck length increases
relative to what would be normal at that future point in time in a non-accelerated, normal frame, but equal to that of the
normal, non-accelerated frame at the non-accelerated point in time.  However, when the time acceleration stops, unless
it is reduced by some force, the rate of apparent expansion of space, this due to the contraction of space, while no
longer accelerating, continues to  produce an amplified increase in apparent space, this because of the increased
number of units of space that now exist. This necessitates that there be some kind of force that counters the increased
rate of contraction that exists so that apparent increases in space are reduced to c. Ultimately this countering force is
comprised of both the gravity that is redistributed by the un-layering of space during the time acceleration faze and also
an anti-contraction “rebound” force produced by the Universe when it reaches its intrinsic maximum overall size, this
force today known as dark matter.  Dark matter slows the rate of the apparent expansion of space by slowing down the
rate of contraction of space.

The difference between the first period of Primordial substance dominance, this period extending from the initial creation
of the Universe until the passing of approximately 1.5 x10^-36 sec, is that then there was only one normal, non-dilated
time reference frame with one central point, toward which all entities considered to be in a normal non-dilated frame
would contract.  After the period of time acceleration, or inflation, there are multiple normal time reference frames
distributed throughout the Universe, each defining a point toward which non-dilated entities contract.  Gravity influences
the positions of these points of contraction, essentially squeezing them together, sometimes to the point of creating
black holes. There can still be certain degrees of “localized“ time acceleration after the Universe enters into it’s “macro”
phase, but now their effect will be dispersed through a much greater volume of space because of the newly created
space, and their expanding effect will only apply to a localized area, with the expansion always corresponding to a
contraction of the space outside the expanded area, this contraction caused by gravity.  Gravity produces the opposite
effect on the size of overall space (and subdivided overall space) than does dark energy, contracting it instead of
expanding it.  The combination of the expansions caused by the time acceleration generated by dark energy and the
contractions caused by the time dilation produced by gravity and dark matter give us the Universe we see today.

Gravitational centers begin as relatively evenly dispersed throughout the Universe. As they increase in strength and
cluster, the space between them can begin to expand because a localized time acceleration between the galaxies
occurs. This happens because at a certain point the “dark matter”, or “amplified gravity” created by the formation of
black holes no longer has the range to reach and interact with other black hole systems, allowing accelerated local
expansion to begin.  This is what occurs about 10 billion years into the Universe, and this occurs because the average
distance between the large gravity producing galaxies come to exceed the range of the amplified gravity produced by a
secondary quantum layer of space-time.

Thus we have:

Range of the binding force of dark matter equals approximately Tf^1/8(PL), which equals approximately 5x10^-28m.  At
Tf^1/8 ptu this also equals the radius of the Universe.  Just like Planck’s length, while the range of the bonding force
contracts in the absolute sense it remains constant in size relative to other measured entities in the Universe.

Under normal circumstances and in normal time, after Tf^¼ ptu, which equals (Tf^1/8)(Tf^1/8) ptu, or approximately
5x10^-29 sec, the size of the Universe’s radius in the absolute sense is equal to about 1.6 x10^-5 m.  In the relative
sense, as measured in terms of Planck’s length by a person at the same point in time and who is contracting at the
same rate as Planck’s length, the radius of the Universe will be measured as approximately 1.61 x10^-20m, this about
1/Tf^1/8 times smaller in size than at Tf^1/8 ptu, which was about 5.3 x10^-12m.

Alternatively, when a time acceleration of factor Tf^1/8 per Tf^1/8 (ptu), equal to C' per (ptu), is applied to the overall
size of the Universe at Tf^1/8 ptu for a period of Tf^1/8 normal time ptu, the overall actual size of the Universe expands
to a size of approximately Tf^4(1.61x10^-5)m, which equals approximately (1.61 x 10^10m).

Actual overall size is now (Tf^1/4)(1.6x10^-5)m, or approximately 1.6x10^10m. Planck size is measured as 1.61x10^-20m],
which equals approximately 1.61x10^-5m/(Tf^1/4), and overall apparent size at this point in time is about (Tf^1/4)x
(Tf^1/4) 1.61x10^-20 m, or approximately 1x10^30 x (1.6x10^-20)m, equal to about (1.61x10^10)m.

At this point, at approximately (1x10^15) ptu, or about 5 x 10^-29 sec, lets assume that overall size stops expanding but
Planck’s length is still contracting at such a rate that it will appear that the space of the Universe expands at a rate of
Tf^1/4(c). This is because the apparent rate of spatial creation is determined by the rate of contraction of Planck’s
length and the radius of the Universe.  When the size of the radius of the Universe is on the order of Tf^1/4 larger than
normal, this equivalent to 1 x10^15 larger than normal, the rate of spatial creation will also increase by that factor, to
Tf^1/4(c).  From here forward, because of the expanded overall size, the rate of apparent growth in the size of the
Universe is always Tf^1/4, or about 1x10^15 times normal.  However, if we recognize that there is also a diminishing in
the rate of contraction of Planck's length as time passes, there would then be an expansion in its size relative to what it
would be in normal time in a normal sized Universe. This diminishing in the rate of contraction reflects the quantum
nature of space-time mentioned earlier, where the fully unfolded string or chain asserts a pulling effect on the minimum
size possible, the "floor" of the Universe, Plank's length. The reduction is by a factor of Tf^1/8, which then means that
the Universe will always look to be larger than expected by a factor of Tf^1/8, as opposed to the Tf^1/4 that would occur
without the diminishing in the rate of contraction of c.  So, when overall expansion stops at Tf^1/4 ptu, after the next
Tf^1/4(Tf^14)ptu the Universe will appear to be Tf^1/8 larger that "normal".  So at about Tf^30(5.x10^-44) ptu, or about
5x10^-14 sec, the Universe will appear to be about 5x10^2 m in radius; at about 5x10 sec the Universe will appear to be
about 5x10^m; and at 1.5 x10^9 sec, about 200 years, the Universe will appear to be about 1x10^6 light years in radius.

According to observation, after inflation the apparent expanding rate of the Universe diminishes at such a rate that
approximately 1 sec after the birth of the Universe it will have an apparent measured size of approximately 1 light year,
while after 10 years this size will appear to be about 300,000  light years. These results match up pretty well with the
purely theoretically derived results I've obtained above with the contraction approach.

As time goes by the excess apparent expansion of the Universe caused by the remnant of the time acceleration that
produced the inflationary period diminishes until it eventually becomes zero. This occurs approximately (Tf^1/2)(Tf^1/4)
(Tf^1/8) ptu after the beginning of the Universe, or in other words, about 200 years after creation. This then instigates
another overall expansion, a reduced one  The apparent rates of expansion though, are never fully realized because of
the presence of gravity, including the amplified gravity of dark matter. However, about 4 billion years ago apparent
spatial expansion began to increase, this indicating a form of "localized" time acceleration, this due to the dispersion of
gravity and increased dispersion of large gravitational sources, plus the range limitations of dark gravity.  This
increasing rate of spatial expansion is observed today.


---------- the end


Footnotes:

1)  As stated, for purposes of describing a photon’s propagation it can be said that as a photon moves toward the
periphery of the Universe the space required to produce a contraction powered propagation of velocity c shrinks.  We
could also say that hypothetically the radius of the Universe is actually, 2tc, not tc,  in that direction, thus maintaining a
sufficient distance between a photon and the periphery of the Universe in the direction of propagation, and this then
enabling contraction to produce an appropriate velocity for photons.  However, the actual expanded size of the Universe
in the direction of propagation is not necessary, since a proper velocity of c produced by contraction can also be
obtained by increasing rates of contraction in the direction of motion as the distance between the photon and the
periphery of the Universe shrinks.

2) The rate of contraction per unit of space and the amount of space between any two matter objects in space also
creates an apparent motion between the two.   Under normal circumstances it is only an apparent motion because it is
caused by the contraction of Planck’s length (producing an apparent expansion of the overall size of the Universes), and
not by a change in inertia.  Before inflation, at t<1.5x10^-36 sec, conditions were different.  Under these conditions this
apparent motion should be considered to be an actual motion relative to the single non-dilated time reference frame
centered at the center of the Universe.   This motion is caused by a relative time dilation for matter at that relative
position in the Universe.

As described in my paper, “Alternative Relativity”, a position in space corresponds with a velocity relative to the non-
dilated “center” of the Universe as determined by that particular non-dilated frame.  This relative motion may or may not
cause a time dilation for matter at that position in space.  If there is a time dilation for a matter object at that relative
position it is because it possesses a velocity that counters the natural velocity it has toward the center of the frame.  If it
does not possess a time dilation it is because only apparent velocity exists between it and the center.

As the size of the distance separating two matter objects in space approaches the radius of the Universe the apparent
motion between the two approaches c.  In order for a matter object in this situation to be considered motionless relative
to the other matter object which is considered motionless, it must have a change in inertia and move toward the other
object with a countering velocity that approaches c.  When this occurs the apparent velocity caused by the contracting
in the size of space shrinks as the separating distance shrinks.  Consequently, by the time that matter object
approaches the matter object considered to be stationary it will have velocity, caused by its relative inertia, that
approaches c relative to the stationary object.


3) Radii ---  The Universe begins as a single three dimensional point ball of radius app1.6x10^-5m, this being equal to
the Planck length at that time.  This spherical ball can also represent the base “volume” of space in which a photon
exists at the beginning point in time.   The radius of this base volume can be considered to be contracting, as does
Planck’s length, toward a center point within itself.  This center point toward which it contracts follows a path that
appears to move away from the center of the sphere representing the motionless point, or center, of the Universe.

For the photon radius of the circular path degenerates according to the equation r= 2pi(R)/T.  In the space of the
Universe this point ball’s contracting manifests itself as a point in motion, defining a line, a line that appears to increase
in length at a rate of c(pi), though this apparent growth in the line is the result of the contraction of (c)1, or the Planck
length, our standard of measure.  This moving ball point (that writes) rotates its direction of motion at a rate of 1 rotation
per Ptu.  This rotation is actually the summation of three rotations, or one rotation in three directions, these directions
defining the three dimensions.  The radius contracts at a rate  -C/t^2.